Posts in Category: Projects

Out of Phase: Race Conditions and Shared Mutexes

This is part of a series for the Out of Phase game project that reflects on various stages, covering pros and cons of the creative process and implementation of the game.

Last year I started porting over the backend of my game from Python to C++. The reason for this move ties into my long-term goals as a game developer. Programming a multiplayer server has been something that has intrigued me for a while. The idea of creating a virtual environment that is continuously running and allows multiple players to interact with that environment in real time is fascinating to me.

At this time, my game will only support two players, but I would like to play around with adding more.  I’m doubtful this will be a massively multiplayer game, like World of Warcraft or Elder Scrolls Online, since that would be a huge amount of effort. So maybe up to four players.

Real-time games that support multiple players typically require some special handling of synchronizing the game state as it is updated from the player’s clients. Without synchronizing, race conditions will occur which will result in erroneous and unpredictable ways.

So in this post, I’ll be covering how to avoid race conditions in C++ threads by using locks and mutexes.

Race Conditions

Let’s take a code snippet as an example (this is make believe pseudo code):

Race Condition 1

Ok. So the problem here is what happens when two players are attacking this goblin at the same time. Just because this code is wrapped in a function, doesn’t mean each block of code gets executed sequentially. It’s possible that the lines of code being run between each player may be executed in a mixed order.

Let’s assume that goblin->getHealth  and goblin->setHealth  read and write the current health value from or to memory. (But they don’t use synchronization)

Two players are attacking a goblin with 500 health. Both players inflict 30 damage at the same time. We expect the goblin’s health to drop down to 440, but instead, it only drops down to 470. What happened?

Where did the damage go? Well, it got overwritten because the instructions weren’t synchronized. Each thread keeps a separate copy of health and when the goblin’s health is changed in one of the threads, it never updates in the other.

RPG Slots Progress – Cocos2d Review


I started developing a slots game using the Cocos2d C++ SDK. Cocos2d is an opensource game development framework that support C++, Objective-C, and JavaScript. Eventually, this game will evolve into a slots RPG, like King Cashing and King Cashing 2. For now it uses a pretty generic reels and a match 3 mechanic that matches on the same row as well as cells on adjacent rows. For score, it keeps experience points, since this will transition to the RPG slots.

Source for the project can be found here. As of this writing, it’s in early development.

Like many game frameworks, Cocos2d has many helper functions that allow for quick game prototyping. Scenes are easy to construct, and assets, sprites, and audio can be added using built in Cocos2d objects. It even supports the ability to add custom shaders.

Extending Sprites

I found quickly that I needed to create custom objects that extended sprites. In this project there two classes that extend cocos2d::sprite ; the reel, and the HUD.

Grouping elements within sprites helped with organizing code and separation of concern. I did run into strange memory errors when trying to add certain objects, such as cocos2d::Label , directly to the scene while also having a pointer to it in the scene.


The Cocos2d C++ framework uses a smart-pointer technique to automatically destroy dynamically allocated objects when its internal reference count is 0. This relieves pressure in remembering to destroy objects and worrying about pointer ownership. Though cyclical dependencies still need to be avoided.

The built-in Cocos2d objects are automatically added to the autorelease pool, so there is no need to use the new  keyword. In my project, I have an object that extends the Cocos2d sprite. So there’s some boilerplate code that I needed to add so my object would be added to the autorelease pool.

ReelSprite::create  is a static method that follows the Cocos2d convention of constructing an object and adding it to the autorelease pool. mainSprite->autorelease()  is the line that actually adds the object to the autorelease pool, so that it does not have to be manually destroyed.